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Βασικοί κανόνες προτεραιότητας στην Ιστιοσανίδα.

1. Δεξινεμος έχει προτεραιότητα πάντα και κοιτάμε ξεκαθαρα να του δώσουμε χωρο και όχι να τον μπερδέψουμε η να τον αναγκάσουμε να ελαττώσει ταχυτητα

 

2. Αυτός που προηγείται δεν έχει ευθύνη να αλλάξει πορεία αλλά αυτός που ακολουθεί και επιχειρεί προσπέραση, ακόμα και αν αυτός που προηγειται πηγαίνει πολύ αργα η έχει πέσει.

 

3. Σε συγκλίνουσες πορείες ο προσηνεμος παραχωρεί προτεραιότητα στον υπηνεμο. Σε τέτοια περίπτωση όταν είμαι ο προσηνεμος προτιμώ να κάνω προσπέραση υπηνεμα (να ποδισω) ώστε να βρεθώ υπηνεμος. Αν αλλάξει πορεία αυτός που είναι υπηνεμος συνεχίζουμε να είμαστε υποχρεωμένοι να δινουμε προτεραιότητα η να διορθώσουμε πορεία ξανα. Το τρίτο είναι και αυτό που παραμελούν αρκετοί και θέλει λίγο σκέψη και εκπαιδευση. Ειδικά το σενάριο όπου ο υπηνεμος ορτσαρει και ο προσηνεμος επιλέγει επίσης να ορτσαρει και συνεχίσουν να συγκλίνουν οι πορείες τους.

Προσηνεμος = Sovrano (sovereign)

Υπηνεμος = Sotavento, Sottovento (σταβεντο στην Ελληνική) Sotto +Vento = Down +Wind = Υπό/Κάτω +Ανεμος

Starboard (Steorboard, Steerboard) Παραδοσιακά η πλευρά του πηδαλίου στα αρχαία σκάφη. Η Δεξιά πλευρά του σκαφους.

Port . H πλευρά που προσδενανε τα πλοία στον μώλο ώστε να μη βρίσκει το πηδάλιο που βρισκοταν από την αντιθετη . Η αριστερή πλευρά του σκάφους.

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World Sailing : 2021 - 2024 edition of World Sailing's Racing Rules of Sailing

 

The 2021 - 2024 edition of World Sailing's Racing Rules of Sailing have been published and will come into effect on 1 January 2021.

The new Rules are available to download here.

The Racing Rules of Sailing (RRS) governs the sport of sailboat and sailboard racing. It is revised and published every four years by World Sailing. World Sailing's Racing Rules Committee, a group of experienced international judges and officials, are the guardians of the RRS. Following the publication of the last edition, the Committee have taken on feedback from sailors, MNAs and sailing officials to refine the 2021 - 2024 edition.

Requests for reproduction of the Rules, including all requests to electronically reproduce the Rules online or via apps, must be sent to office@sailing.org. Further information on reproduction of the rules is available in the reproduction policy here.

For MNAs who wish to issue prescriptions which are mandatory under RRS 88.2, these must be emailed to the World Sailing Executive Office with a request that they be approved. Prescriptions are only approved once they are posted on the World Sailing website.

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Apparent Wind

Why does the wind seem almost to disappear when you sail downwind and increase again when you sail upwind? Let's learn what apparent wind "feels" like.

Beginner and advanced sailors have already felt it, but they probably haven't thought about it. When we sail in stronger winds, we tend to feel that we're moving faster than we actually are.

This sensation occurs when we start feeling high winds on our face or on our skin. Apparent wind is exactly that. However, let's rewind our lesson a bit to the concept of true wind.

The Truth Behind True Wind

True wind is nothing more than the speed and direction of the wind that you feel when you are not sailing away, i.e., from a stationary observation point. Imagine yourself at the beach, just feeling the wind in your face and your body.

You're experiencing true wind or, in other words, the measurement given by your portable anemometer. For example, you look at the device, and the wind is blowing at 15 knots - that is simply true wind. Simple as that.

Now, suppose you're driving a cabriolet at fifty miles per hour on a windless day. The speed of the car through the stagnant air mass creates an "induced wind" of fifty miles per hour. In other words, if you stand up on your seat you will feel a fifty mile per hour wind hitting you in the face.

In this case, your apparent wind (50 mph) equals your induced wind (50 mph). But suppose you are driving at fifty miles per hour and that there is also a true wind coming from your right at fifty miles per hour.

You won't feel two separate winds, but instead one "apparent wind" which results from the combined effects of both the induced and true wind. While sailing, the faster we go, the more apparent wind direction swings forward.

The Apparent Wind Formula

On a windsurfer, the apparent wind we experience when we cruise at 10 knots in a 10-knot crosswind will be a 14-knot wind hitting us at 45 degrees. As a result, in strong wind conditions, the sail has to be sheeted in far tighter than in light winds.

So, at high speeds, windsurfers have their sails in a close hauled position despite sailing on a broad reach. Since the apparent wind results from the addition of the true and induced winds, when the true wind increases or decreases there is a shift in both the apparent wind speed and apparent wind direction.

One thing is certain: the faster your windsurf board is moving, the more apparent wind you create and, therefore, more adjustments you need to make on your sail. Finally, one thing you should be proud of - windsurfers and a few boats can sail faster than the true wind.

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As with tacking, in my opinion, knowing how to gybe in windsurfing is unnecessary since our turn will be quite different as soon as we start planing/gliding (the planing gybe is very different to this basic gybe). However, to get to that level we need time on the water and until then we want to be able to turn around with style without getting wet. I will get around to writing a guide for the carve jybe in the future but this is all I have here for now. So here goes:
 

How to Gybe

We start on beam reach (1.). We put the back hand further back on the boom and start to lean the sail forward (towards the wind) (2.).
As the board starts to bear away, we move our front foot behind our back foot and place all our weight on it (3.).
We keep leaning the mast forward and down towards the water.
We pass through the downwind course and continue sailing clew first in the new direction.
At this point we move our feet forward so that the new front foot is next to the mast and the new back foot a shoulder width behind (4.).
As soon as the feet are in place we shift the sail remembering to bring the mast forward quickly as it shifts.
We bear up again so we get back to half reach again on the new side (5.).
How to Windsurf - Gybing Footwork

Important throughout the whole manoeuvre is to really lean into the wind as we are going to have the while area of the sail available to the wind and therefore a lot of power in the sail.

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Being able to turn around quickly without falling in is a pretty useful thing to know how to do in windsurfing. However, I would like to note that it is not essential to know in the initial stages of windsurfing. “Why?” you may ask. Well, basically, the way we tack and gybe with big boards and small sails is different to the way we tack and jybe with small boards and big sails and until then we can simply use the basic windsurf turn. With big boards we are going to rely a lot on the spare volume that allows us to float and have stability even when the board is not moving. This is not going to be possible when windsurfing with small boards. These boards won’t have any reserve buoyancy and so won’t float when standing still which means that the technique in tackng and jybing is very different. That being said, knowing how to tack is a useful thing to know and a good thing to practice as we solidify the foundations of our windsurfing technique. After all, it all builds the sensitivity required for the sport.

How to Tack

 

So let’s get to it. Before we start we want to keep in mind that throughout the whole manoeuvre we want to keep wind power in the sail. We want to try to keep equilibrium not by balancing on the board but by using the wind in the sail. To do this we want to keep one hand on the boom at all times, before and after changing sides. Let´s have at it step by step:

  1. From the normal sailing position (1.) we put the front hand on the mast just below the boom and the front foot moves to just in front of the mast. As we do this the sail is lowered to the back of the board (or away from the wind) (2.) See why in the post on steering. Important to note, we move and keep our weight on the front foot throughout the whole manoeuvre.

  2. The board starts turning into the wind. We continue holding the foot and hand positions until the sail is on the new side. A good indicator is when the foot of the sail (the lower edge of the sail) is touching our shin (3.).

  3. Right then we need quick feet. The longer we take to get from one side with pressure in the sail to the other with pressure on the new side, the more likely it is that we lose balance and fall in.

  4. We bring the back foot forward to where the front foot was. At the same time the back hand replaces the front hand on the mast. We keep the sail low all the way until this moment (4.).

  5. Now we simultaneously move the previously front foot to the back and bring the mast forward to bear away from the wind (5.). The weight is transferred on to the foot that is now in front of the mast.

  6. The board will bear away. As it does this we must start to transfer the weight on to the new back foot gradually and open the sail (sheet out) gradually so that the wind doesn’t build up too much pressure in the sail as we bear away.